Joanne Ciulla noted that "good" leadership involves the combination of ethics and competence. Most researchers view business ethics as the application of espoused values. Commensurate with the expansion of global commerce is the pressure of a changing business ethic. Since ethical frameworks are built upon personal values, it naturally follows that different cultures more highly value some virtues over others, and these may not align with our traditional western ethic. Is it ethical to do business in such a way that is consistent with another culture but is inconsistent with your own? Questions such as these challenge the modern leader to more carefully consider the framework of values that define the person and the organization.
Mitroff & Denton found that HR professionals and executives surveyed viewed religion as a highly inappropriate form of expression in the workplace, but conversely viewed spirituality as highly appropriate and even a positive workplace experience. Spirituality seem to transcend reservations of religious intolerance and was viewed by the survey participants as being a form of "interconnectedness" rather than as citing specific religious dogma.