Bernard C. Reimann defined organizational competence as "the propensity of an organization to achieve its objectives". This viewpoint clearly delineated competence from effectiveness; the latter being the achieved outcomes of the organization, while the former are the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to predispose a successful outcome. Compentence is a controllable organizational value and a vital antecedent to effective leadership through the leader's Doing dimension.
Shalom H. Schwartz characterized values as "criteria individuals use to judge the desirability of behavior, people, and events." Brian P. Hall defined values as the beliefs and constructs that "drive, motivate, and empower us". Hanover Insurance CEO, William J. O'Brien, recognized that values are "constants" that we live up to because we deeply believe that they are important and that it is right to do so.
A major area of my research focused on the priority of individual values, both from the perspective of the leader and as well from the follower. Value-based leadership creates strands of expectation and influence that model the framework of behaviors, decisions, and reactions to outcomes within the organization. The organization must create its own value dimensions, i.e., develop its own framework of foundational behaviors, decision autonomy, and reactions to outcomes. Influence strands connect wherever influence-ready relationships exist, irrespective of position, role, or authority of the individual in the organization. One bad apple can indeed spoil the whole bunch unless a value ecology is firmly established within the organization and modeled by its leadership. Values establish the leader's Being dimension.